A Research Agenda for Online Linguistic Surveillance of Threatening Messages

Brian H Spitzberg, Jean Mark Gawron

Abstract


Threats are by definition a communicative act, and as such, it becomes an essential obligation of the field of communication to ascertain what they communicate, and when they communicate imminent credible risk. This paper proposes a research- and theory-based set of over 20 potential linguistic risk indicators through which corpora of actual online threat messages may discriminate credible from non-credible threats. Some of these are obviously easier to code automatically than others, but all can be rated, and used as potential construct validation criteria. Rating scales are proposed, existing threat corpora are identified, and some prospective computational linguistic procedures are identified. Implications for ongoing threat surveillance and its applications are explored.


Keywords


risk assessment, computational linguistics, cyberharassment, threats

Full Text:

PDF

References


Argamon, S., Dhawle, S., Koppel, M., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2005/2006). Lexical predictors of personality type. In Proceedings of the 2005 Joint Annual Meeting of the Interface and the Classification Society of North America (pp. 1–16). St. Louis, MO: Interface. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.60.6697

Barnes, M. T., Gordon, W. C., & Hudson, S. M. (2001). The crime of threatening to kill. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 312-319.

Baumgartner, J. V., Scalora, M. J., & Plank, G. L. (2001). Case characteristics of threats toward state government targets investigated by a Midwestern State. Journal of Threat Assessment, 1, 41-60.

Beller, S., Bender, A., & Jie, S. (2009). Conditional promises and threats in Germany, China, and Tonga: Cognition and emotion. Journal of Cognition & Culture, 9(1/2), 115-139. doi: 10.1163/156853709X414674

Beller, S., Bender, A., & Kuhnmünch, G. (2005). Understanding conditional promises and threats. Thinking & Reasoning, 11(3), 209-238. doi: 10.1080/13546780442000141

Bernstein, H. A. (1981). Survey of threats and assaults directed toward psychotherapists. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 35(4), 542-549.

Biber, D. (1991). Variation across speech and writing. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Bondü, R., & Scheithauer, H. (2014). Leaking and death-threats by students: A study in German schools. School Psychology International, 35(6), 592-608. doi: 10.1177/0143034314552346

Borum, R., Cornell, D. G., Modzeleski, W., & Jimerson, S. R. (2010). What can be done about school shootings? A review of the evidence. Educational Researcher, 39(1), 27-37. doi: 10.3102/0013189X09357620

Borum, R., Fein, R., Vossekuil, B., & Berglund, J. (1999). Threat assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 17, 323-337.

Brewster, M. P. (2000). Stalking by former intimates: Verbal threats and other predictors of physical violence. Violence and Victims, 15, 41-54.

Brezina, V., & Gablasova, D. (2015). Is there a core general vocabulary? Introducing the "new general service list". Applied Linguistics, 36(1), 1-22.

Brown, G. P., Dubin, W. R., Lion, J. R., & Garry, L. J. (1996). Threats against clinicians: A preliminary descriptive classification. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 24(3), 367-376.

Bucci, W., & Maskit, B. (2005). Building a weighted dictionary for referential activity. In Y. Qu, J. Shannon, & J. Wiebe (Eds.), Computing attitude and affect in text (pp. 49–60). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Bulling, D., Scalora, M., Borum, R., Panuzio, J., & Donica, A. (2008). Behavioral science guidelines for assessing Insider Threats. Lincoln, NE: The University of Nebraska Public Policy Center. Paper 37. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/publicpolicypublications/37

Calhoun, F. S. (1998). Hunters and howlers: Threats and violence against federal judicial officials in the United States, 1789-1993 (USMS No. 80). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, United States Marshals Service.

Calhoun, F. S., & Weston, S. W. (2008). On public figure howlers. In J. R. Meloy, L. Sheridan, & J. Hoffman (Eds.), Stalking, threatening, and attacking public figures: A psychological and behavioral analysis (pp. 105-122). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Calhoun, F. S., & Weston, S. W. (2016). Threat assessment and management strategies: Identifying the howlers and hunters (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.

Campbell, J., Webster, D., Koziol-McLain, J., Block, C., Campbell, D., Curry, M., & ... Laughon, K. (2003). Risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1089-1097. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.7.1089

Carter, N. R. (2010). We shall be watching you, you’re going to die, and other threats: A corpus-based speech act approach. UTA Working Papers in Linguistics, 3. https://uta-ir.tdl.org/uta-ir/bitstream/handle/10106/5192/Threat-corpus-48-61.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Castelfranchi, C., & Guerini, M. (2007). Is it a promise or a threat? Pragmatics & Cognition, 15(2), 277- 311.

Celli, F., & Rossi, L. (2012). Long chains or stable communities: The role of emotional stability in Twitter conversations. In Proceedings of the workshop on semantic analysis in social media (pp. 10–17). Association for Computational Linguistics.

Chung, C. K., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2011). Using computerized text analysis to assess threatening communications and behavior. In C. Chauvin (Ed.), Threatening communications and behavior: Perspectives on the pursuit of public figures (pp. 3-32). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Churcher, F. P., & Nesca, M. (2013). Risk factors for violence in stalking perpetration: A meta-analysis. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 7(2), 100-112.

Cohen, K., Johansson, F., Kaati, L., & Mork, J. C. (2014). Detecting linguistic markers for radical violence in social media. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(1), 246-256. doi:10.1080/09546553.2014.849948

Colombo, G. B., Burnap, P., Hodorog, A., & Scourfield, J. (2016). Analysing the connectivity and communication of suicidal users on twitter. Computer Communications, 73, 291-300. http://dx.doi/org/10.1016/j.comcom.2015.07.018doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2015.07.018

Crowner, M. L., Peric, G., Stepcic, F., & Lee, S. (2005). Assailant and victim behaviors immediately preceding inpatient assault. Psychiatric Quarterly, 76, 243-256. Doi: 10.1007/s11126-005-2977-2

Davis, J. A. (2001). The assessment of potential threat: A second look. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 16(1), 1-10.

Davis, J. A., Siota, R., & Stewart, L. (1999). Future prediction of dangerous and violent behavior: Psychological indicators and considerations for conducting and assessment of potential threat. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6(3), 44-57.

Davis, J. A., Stewart, L. M., & Siota, R. (2001). Future prediction of dangerousness and violent behavior: Psychological indicators and considerations for conducting an assessment of potential threat. In J. A. Davis (Ed.), Stalking crimes and victim protection: Prevention, intervention, threat assessment, and case management (pp. 261-282). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Desmet, B., & Hoste, V. (2012). Combining Lexico-semantic Features for Emotion Classification in Suicide Notes. Biomedical Informatics Insights, 5(Suppl. 1), 125-128. doi:10.4137/BII.S8960

Desmet, B., & Hoste, V. (2013). Emotion detection in suicide notes. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(16), 6351-6358. doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2013.05.050

Dietz, P. E., Matthews, D. B., Martell, D. A., Stewart, T. M., Hrouda, D. R., & Warren, J. (1991a). Threatening and otherwise inappropriate letters to members of the United States Congress. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 36, 1445-1468.

Dietz, P. E., Matthews, D. B., Van Duyne, C., Martell, D. A., Parry, C. D. H., Stewart, T., Warren, J., & Crowder, J. D. (1991b). Threatening and otherwise inappropriate letters to Hollywood celebrities. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 36, 185-209.

Doren, D. M., Miller, R., & Maier, G. J. (1993). Predicting threatening psychopathic patient behavior in an inpatient milieu. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 37(3), 221-229. doi: 10.1177/0306624X9303700303

Drude, S., Broeder, D., & Trilsbeek, P. (2014). The Language Archive and its solutions for sustainable endangered languages corpora. Book 2.0, 4(1/2), 5-20.

Drysdale, D. A., & Modzeleski, W. (2010). Campus attacks: Targeted violence affecting institutions of higher education. Washington DC: U.S. Secret Service, U.S. Department of Education, and Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Dunn, J. (2008). Operations of the LAPD Threat Management Unit. In J. R. Meloy, L. Sheridan, & J. Hoffman (Eds.), Stalking, threatening, and attacking public figures: A psychological and behavioral analysis (pp. 325-342). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Egnoto, M. J., & Griffin, D. J. (2016). Analyzing Language in Suicide Notes and Legacy Tokens: Investigating Clues to Harm of Self and Harm to Others in Writing. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, doi:10.1027/0227-5910/a000363

Every-Palmer, S., Barry-Walsh, J., & Pathé, M. (2015). Harassment, stalking, threats and attacks targeting New Zealand politicians: A mental health issue. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49(7), 634-641. doi: 10.1177/0004867415583700

Fein, R. A., Vossekuil, B., & Holden, G. A. (1995, September). Threat assessment: An approach to prevent targeted violence. National Institute of Justice Research in Action (NCJ 155000). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Fein, R. A., Vossekuil, B., Pollack, W. S., & Borum, R. (2002). Threat assessment in schools: A guide to managing threatening situations and to creating safe school climates. Washington DC: U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education.

Fein, R., & Vossekuil, B. (2000). Protective intelligence and threat assessment investigations: A guide to managing threatening situations and to creating safe school climates. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education.

Fitzgerald, J. R. (2007). The FBI's Communicated Threat Assessment Database. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 76(2), 6-9.

Fraser, B. (1975). Warning and threatening. Centrum, 3, 169-190.

Gales, T. A. (2010a). Ideologies of violence: A corpus and discourse analytic approach to stance in threatening communications. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Linguistics, University of California, Davis, CA.

Gales, T. (2010b). Ideologies of violence: a corpus and discourse analytic approach to stance in threatening communications. International Journal of Speech, Language & the Law, 17(2), 299-302. doi:10.1558/ijsll.v17i2.299

Gales, T. (2011). Identifying interpersonal stance in threatening discourse: An appraisal analysis. Discourse Studies, 13(1), 27-46. doi: 10.1177/1461445610387735

Gales, T. (2015). The stance of stalking: a corpus-based analysis of grammatical markers of stance in threatening communications. Corpora, 10(2), 171-200. doi:10.3366/cor.2015.0073

Garfinkel, S., Farrell, P., Roussev, V., & Dinolt, G. (2009). Bringing science to digital forensics with standardized forensic corpora. Digital Investigation, 6S2-S11. doi:10.1016/j.diin.2009.06.016

Gill, O., & Ben-Shahar, O. (2005). Credible coercion. Texas Law Review, 83(3), 717-780.

Glasgow, K., & Schouten, R. (2014). Assessing violence risk in threatening communications. Workshop on computational linguistics and clinical psychology: From linguistic signal to clinical reality (pp. 38-45). Baltimore, MD: Association for Computational Linguistics. http://acl2014.org/acl2014/W14-32/pdf/W14-3205.pdf

Glass, N., Laughon, K., Rutto, C., Bevacqua, J., & Campbell, J. C. (2008). Young Adult Intimate Partner Femicide: An Exploratory Study. Homicide Studies, 12(2), 177-187.

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gottschalk, L. A. (2000). The application of computerized content analysis of natural language in psychotherapy research now and in the future. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 54(3), 305-311.

Gottschalk, L. A., & Bechtel, R. J. (2000). Pcad 2000: Psychiatric content analysis and diagnosis. Technical report, GB Software LLC, Corona Del Mar, CA.

Griffiths, T. L., Steyvers, M., & Tenenbaum, J. B. (2007). Topics in semantic representation. Psychological Review, 114(2), 211-244. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.114.2.211

Hadnagy, C., & Fincher, M. (2015). Phishing dark waters: The offensive and defensive sides of malicious E-mails. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons.

Häkkänen, H. (2006). Finnish bomb threats: offence and offender characteristics. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 8(1), 1-8.

Hamel, J., Desmarais, S. L., & Nicholls, T. L. (2007). Perceptions of motives in intimate partner violence: Expressive versus coercive violence. Violence and Victims, 22, 563-576.

Hancock, J. T., Beaver, D. I., Chung, C. K., Frazee, J., & Pennebaker, J. W., Graesser, A., & Cai, Z. (2010). Social language processing: A framework for analyzing the communication of terrorists and authoritarian regimes. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 2(2), 108–132.

Handelman, L. D., & Lester, D. (2007). The content of suicide notes from attempters and completers. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 28(2), 102-104. doi:10.1027/0227-5910.28.2.102

Hermann, M. G. (2003). Assessing leadership style: Trait analysis. In J. M. Post (Ed.), The psychological assessment of political leaders with profiles of Saddam Hussein and Bill Clinton (pp. 178–212). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.

Hillbrand, M. (2001). Threatening and non-threatening verbal aggression as predictors of physical aggression in violent psychiatric patients. Journal of Threat Assessment, 1, 63-74.

Hoffmann, J. (2009). Public figures and stalking in the European

context. European Journal on Criminal Policy & Research, 15(3), 293-305. doi: 10.1007/s10610-009-9104-0

Hoffmann, J., & Sheridan, L. (2008). Stalking, threatening, and attacking corporate figures. In J. R. Meloy, L. Sheridan, & J. Hoffman (Eds.), Stalking, threatening, and attacking public figures: A psychological and behavioral analysis (pp. 123-142). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Jackson, G. M. (2012). Predicting malicious behavior: Tools and techniques for ensuring global security. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons.

James, D. V., Kerrigan, T. R., Forfar, R., Farnham, F. R., & Preston, L. F. (2010). The fixated threat assessment centre: Preventing harm and facilitating care. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 21, 521-536.

James, D. V., McEwan, T. E., MacKenzie, R. D., Meloy, J. R., Mullen, P. E., Pathé, M. T., & ... Darnley, B. J. (2010). Persistence in stalking: a comparison of associations in general forensic and public figure samples. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 21(2), 283-305. doi: 10.1080/14789940903388994

James, D. V., Mullen, P. E., Pathé, M. T., Meloy, J. R., Farnham, F. R., Preston, L., & Darnley, B. (2008). Attacks on the British Royal Family: The Role of Psychotic Illness. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 36(1), 59-67.

James, D. V., Mullen, P. E., Pathé, M. T., Meloy, J. R., Preston, L. F., Darnley, B., & Farnham, F. R. (2009). Stalkers and harassers of royalty: The role of mental illness and motivation. Psychological Medicine, 39(9), 1479-1490. doi:10.1017/S0033291709005443

Jenkins, D. M. (2009). When should threats be seen as indicative of future violence? Threats, intended violence, and the intimacy effect. In F. S. Calhoun & S. W. Weston (Eds.), Threat assessment and management strategies: Identifying howlers and hunters (pp. 151-199). Boca Raton, FL: CRC/Taylor & Francis.

Joachims, T. (1998). Text categorization with support vector machines: Learning with many relevant features. Proceedings of the European Conference on Machine Learning (ECML). New York, NY: Springer.

Kissine, M. (2008). From predictions to promises: How to derive deontic commitment. Pragmatics & Cognition, 16, 471-491. doi: 10.1075/p&c.16.3.03kis

Kropp, P. R., Hart, S. D., & Lyon, D. R. (2008). Risk assessment of public figure stalkers. In J. R. Meloy, L. Sheridan, & J. Hoffman (Eds.), Stalking, threatening, and attacking public figures: A psychological and behavioral analysis (pp. 343-362). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Landauer, T. K., & Dumais, S. T. (1997). A solution to Plato's problem: The latent semantic analysis theory of acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge. Psychological Review, 104(2), 211-240. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.104.2.211

Leonard, R. A. (2005/06). Forensic linguistics: Applying the scientific principles of language analysis to issues of the law. International Jouranl of the Humaniteis, 3, 1447-9559.

Limberg, H. (2009). Impoliteness and threat responses. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(7), 1376-1394. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2009.02.003

Lindberg, N., Oksanen, A., Sailas, E., & Kaltiala-Heino, R. (2012). Adolescents expressing school massacre threats online: Something to be extremely worried about? Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 6doi:10.1186/1753-2000-6-39

López-Rousseau, A., Diesendruck, G., & Benozio, A. (2011). My kingdom for a horse: On incredible promises and unpersuasive warnings. Pragmatics & Cognition, 19(3), 399-421.

MacDonald, J. M. (1968). Homicidal threats. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Maier, G. (1996). Managing threatening behavior. The role of talk down and talk up. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 34(6), 25-30.

Mairesse, F., Walker, M. A., Mehl, M. R., & Moore, R. K. (2007). Using linguistic cues for the automatic recognition of personality in conversation and text. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 30, 457–500.

Miah, M., Rahman, W., Yearwood, J., & Kulkarni, S. (2015). Constructing an inter-post similarity measure to differentiate the psychological stages in offensive chats. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 66(5), 1065–1081.

Maras, M-H. (2015). Unprotected speech communicated via social media: What amounts to a true threat? Journal of Internet Law, 19, 3-9.

Marco, M. A. (2008). Influence of situational factors on the codification and interpretation of impoliteness. Pragmatics, 18(4), 757-773.

Martínez-Cabeza, M. A. (2009). Dangerous words: Threats, perlocutions and strategic actions. In B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, & P. Stalmascczyk (Eds.), Cognitive approaches to language and linguistic data (pp. 269-283). Frankfurt, GDR: Peter Lang.

Mazur, A. (1983). Bomb threats against American nuclear-energy facilities. Journal of Political & Military Sociology, 11(1), 109-121.

McCann, J. T. (2001). The relationship between threats and violence in juvenile stalking. Journal of Threat Assessment, 1, 81-90.

McCann, J. T. (2002). Threats in schools: A practical guide for managing violence. New York, NY: Haworth.

McEllistrem, J. E. (2004). Affective and predatory violence: A bimodal classification system of human aggression and violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 1-30.

Meloy, J. R. (1999). Stalking: An old behavior, a new crime. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 22, 85-99.

Meloy, J. R. (2000). Violence risk and threat assessment. San Diego, CA: Specialized Training Services.

Meloy, J. R. (2002). Pathologies of attachment, violence, and criminality. In A. M. Goldstein & I. B. Weiner (Eds.), Handbook of psychology (Vol. 11: Forensic psychology, pp. 509-526). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Meloy, J. R. (2011). Approaching and attacking public figures: A contemporary analysis of communications and behavior. In C. Chauvin (Ed.), Threatening communications and behavior: Perspectives on the pursuit of public figures (pp. 75-106). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Meloy, J. R., & O’Toole, M. E. (2011). The concept of leakage in threat assessment. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 29(4), 29(4), 513-527. doi: 10.1002/bsi.986

Meloy, J. R., Hoffmann, J. Roshdi, K., Glaz-Ocik, J., & Guldimann, A. (2014). Warning behaviors and their configurations across various domains of targeted violence. In J. R. Meloy & J. Hoffmann (Eds.), International handbook of threat assessment (pp. 39-53). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Meloy, J. R., Hoffmann, J., Guldimann, A., & James, D. (2012). The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: An exploration and suggested typology. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 30, 256-279. doi:10.1002/bsl.999

Meloy, J. R., Hoffmann, J., Roshdi, K., & Guldimann, A. (2014). Some warning behaviors discriminate between school shooters and other students of concern. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 1(3), 203-211. doi: 10.1037/tam0000020

Meloy, J. R., James, D. V., Farnham, F. R., Mullen, P. E., Pathe, M., Darnley, B., & Preston, L. (2004). A research review of public figure threats, approaches, attacks, and assassinations in the United States. Journal of Forensic Sciences (Wiley-Blackwell), 49(5), 1086-1093.

Meloy, J. R., Mohandie, K., & Green, M. (2008). A forensic investigation of those who stalk celebrities. In J. R. Meloy, L. Sheridan, & J. Hoffman (Eds.), Stalking, threatening, and attacking public figures: A psychological and behavioral analysis (pp. 37-54). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Meloy, J. R., & O'Toole, M. E. (2011). The concept of leakage in threat assessment. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 29(4), 513-527. doi:10.1002/bsl.986

Meloy, J. R., Sheridan, L, & Hoffman, J. (2008). Public figure stalking, threats, and attacks: The state of the science. In J. R. Meloy, L. Sheridan, & J. Hoffman (Eds.), Stalking, threatening, and attacking public figures: A psychological and behavioral analysis (pp. 3-34). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Meloy, J. R., White, S. G., & Hart, S. (2013). Workplace Assessment of Targeted Violence Risk: The Development and reliability of the WAVR-21. Journal of Forensic Sciences (Wiley-Blackwell), 58(5), 1353-1358. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.12196

Milburn, T. W., & Watman, K. H. (1981). On the nature of threat: A social psychological analysis. New York, NY: Praeger.

Moore, A. P., Mundie, D. A., & Collins, M. L. (2013, July). A system dynamics model for investigating early detection of insider threat risk. Conference Proceedings of the 31st International Conference of the System Dynamics Society. Cambridge, MA. ISBN 978-1-935056-12-06

Morewitz, S. J. (2010). Death threats and violence: New research and clinical perspectives. New York, NY: Springer.

Mundie, D. A., Moore, A. P., & McIntire, D. (2012). Building a multidimensional pattern language for insider threats. Proceedings of the Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs. Tucson, AZ.

Murdock, J. I., Bradac, J. J., & Bowers, J. W. (1984). Effects of power on the perception of explicit and implicit threats, promises, and thromises: A rule-governed perspective. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 48, 344-361.

Nekvasil, E. K., & Cornell, D. G. (2012). Student reports of peer threats of violence: Prevalence and outcomes. Journal of School Violence, 11(4), 357-375. doi:10.1080/15388220.2012.706764

Newhill, C. E. (2002). Client threats toward social workers: Nature, motives, and response. Journal of Threat Assessment, 2, 1-19.

Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(6), 574-583. doi:10.1037/h0040291

O’Dea, B., Larsen, M., Batterham, P., Calear, A., & Christensen, H. (2016). Talking suicide on Twitter: Linguistic style and language processes of suicide-related posts. European Psychiatry, 33S329. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2016.01.727

O’Hair, H. D., Bernard, D. R., & Roper, R. R. (2011). Communication-based research related to threats and ensuing behavior. In C. Chauvin (Ed.), Threatening communications and behavior: Perspectives on the pursuit of public figures (pp. 33-73). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Oberlander, J., & Nowson, S. (2006). Whose thumb is it anyway?: Classifying author personality from weblog text. In Proceedings of the COLING/ACL on Main conference poster sessions (pp. 627–634). Association for Computational Linguistics.

Oster, U. (2010). Using corpus methodology for semantic and pragmatic analyses: What can corpora tell us about the linguistic expression of emotions? Cognitive Linguistics, 21(4), 727-763. doi:10.1515/COGL.2010.023

O'Toole, M. E., & National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (U.S.). (2000). The school shooter: A threat assessment perspective. Quantico, VA: FBI Academy.

Palarea, R. E., Zona, M. A., Lane, J. C., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (1999). The dangerous nature of intimate relationship stalking: Threats, violence, and associated risk factors. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 17, 269-283.

Pennebaker, J. W., Chung, C. K., Ireland, M., Gonzales, A., & Booth, J. W. (2007). The development and psychometric properties of LIWC2007. Austin, TX: LIWC.net

Pennebaker, J. W., Francis, M. E., & Booth, R. J. (2001). Linguistic inquiry and word count: LIWC 2001. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Pichon, S., de Gelder, B., & Grèzes, J. (2009). Two different faces of threat. Comparing the neural systems for recognizing fear and anger in dynamic body expressions. Neuroimage, 47(4), 1873-1883. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.03.084

Polluck, W. S., Modzeleski, W., & Rooney, G. (2008). Prior knowledge of potential school-based violence: Information students learn may prevent a targeted attack. Washington DC: U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education.

Prentice, S., Rayson, P., & Taylor, P. J. (2012). The language of Islamic extremism: Towards an automated identification of beliefs, motivations and justifications. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 17(2), 259-286. doi:10.1075/ijcl.17.2.05pre

Purohit, H. H., Banerjee, T., Hampton, A., Shalin, V. L., Bhandutia, N., & Sheth, A. (2016). Gender-based violence in 140 characters or fewer: A #BigData case study of Twitter. First Monday, 21(1), 1.

Resnick, P. J. (2007). Stalking risk assessment. In D. A. Pinals (Ed.), Stalking: Psychiatric perspectives and practical approaches (Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry and the Law, pp. 61-84). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Riek, B. M., Mania, E. W., & Gaertner, S. L. (2006). Intergroup threat and outgroup attitudes: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 336-353. doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr1004_4

Riek, B. M., Mania, E. W., Gaertner, S. L., McDonald, S. A., & Lamoreaux, M. J. (2010). Does a common ingroup identity reduce intergroup threat? Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13(4), 403-423. doi: 10.1177/1368430209346701

Salgueiro, A. B. (2010). Promises, threats, and the foundations of speech act theory. Pragmatics, 20, 213-228.

Salton, G., & Buckley, C. (1988). Term-weighting approaches in automatic text retrieval. Information Processing & Management, 24, 513–523.

Sandberg, D. A., McNiel, D. E., & Binder, R. L. (1998). Characteristics of psychiatric inpatients who stalk, threaten, or harass hospital staff after discharge. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1102-1105.

Sandberg, D. A., McNiel, D. E., & Binder, R. L. (2002). Stalking, threatening, and harassing behavior by psychiatric patients toward clinicians. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 30, 221-229.

Sanfilippo, A. (2010, December). Content analysis for proactive protective intelligence (PNNL-20062). Springfield, VA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory/Battell.

Sanfilippo, A., McGrath, L., & Bell, E. (2014). Computer modeling of violent intent: A content analysis approach. In J. R. Meloy & J. Hoffmann (Eds.), International handbook of threat assessment (pp. 224-235). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Sanfilippo, A., McGrath, L., & Whitney, P. (2011). Violent frames in action. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, 4, 103-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17467586.2011.627933

Scalora, M. J. (2014). Electronic threats and harassment. In J. R. Meloy & J. Hoffmann (Eds.), International handbook of threat assessment (pp. 214-224). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Scalora, M. J., Zimmerman, W. J., & Wells, D. G. (2008). Use of threat assessment for the protection of the United States Congress. In J. R. Meloy, L. Sheridan, & J. Hoffman (Eds.), Stalking, threatening, and attacking public figures: A psychological and behavioral analysis (pp. 425-434). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Schoeneman, K. A., Scalora, M. J., Darrow, C. D., McLawsen, J. E., Chang, G. H., & Zimmerman, W. J. (2011). Written content indicators of problematic approach behavior toward political officials. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 29(2), 284-301. doi:10.1002/bsl.977

Schoeneman-Morris, K. A., Scalora, M. J., Chang, G. H., Zimmerman, W. J., & Garner, Y. (2007). A comparison of email versus letter threat contacts toward members of the United States Congress. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52(5), 1142-1147. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00538.x

Seger, K. A. (1993). Violence in the workplace: An assessment of the problem based on responses from 32 large corporations. Security Journal, 4 (3), 139—149.

Simons, A., & Cook, A. N. (2014). The assessment of anonymous threatening communications. In J. R. Meloy & J. Hoffmann (Eds.), International handbook of threat assessment (pp. 195-213). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Sinaceur, M., & Neale, M. (2005). Not all threats are created equal: How implicitness and timing affect the effectiveness of threats in negotiations. Group Decision & Negotiation, 14(1), 63-85. doi: 10.1007/s10726-005-3876-5

Sinaceur, M., Van Kleef, G. A., Neale, M. A., Adam, H., & Haag, C. (2011). Hot or cold: Is communicating anger or threats more effective in negotiation? Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(5), 1018-1032. doi: 10.1037/a0023896

Sinclair, H. C. (2009). Stalking, threatening, and attacking public figures: A review. Journal of Police And Criminal Psychology, 24(2), 139-140. doi: 10.1007/s11896-009-9047-x

Smith, M. D., & Morra, N. N. (1994). Obscene and threatening telephone calls to women: Data from a Canadian national survey. Gender & Society, 8, 584-596.

Smith, S. S. (2006). From violent words to violent deeds: Assessing risk from FBI threatening communications. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Smith, S. S. (2008). From violent words to violent deeds: Assessing risk from FBI threatening communication cases. In J. Meloy, L. Sheridan, J. Hoffmann (Eds.), Stalking, threatening, and attacking public figures: A psychological and behavioral analysis (pp. 435-455). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Smith, S. S., & Shuy, R. W. (2002). Forensic psycholinguistics. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 71(4), 16.

Sokolow, B. A., Lewis, W. S., Schuster, S. K., Swinton, D. C., & Van Brunt, B. J. (2014). Threat assessment in the campus setting (The NaBITA 2014 whitepaper). Berwyn, PA: NaBITA. https://www.gtc.edu/sites/default/files/files/documents/2014-NaBITA-Whitepaper-Text-with-Graphics.pdf

Spitzberg, B. H. (in press). Acknowledgement of unwanted pursuit, threats, assault and stalking in a college population. Psychology of Violence.

Spitzberg, B. H., & Cupach, W. R. (2014). The dark side of relationship pursuit: From attraction to obsession and stalking (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Storey, J. E., Gibas, A. L., Reeves, K. A., & Hart, S. D. (2011). Evaluation of a violence risk (threat) assessment training program for police and other criminal justice professionals. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38, 554-564.

Streiner, D. L. (2003). Being Inconsistent About Consistency: When Coefficient Alpha Does and Doesn't Matter. Journal of Personality Assessment, 80(3), 217-222.

Sueki, H. (2015). The association of suicide-related Twitter use with suicidal behaviour: a cross-sectional study of young internet users in Japan. Journal of Affective Disorders, 170155-160. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.08.047

Surface, J. L. (2011). Not all threats are equal. Clearing House, 84(4), 150-154.

Taylor, P. J., Dando, C. J., Ormerod, T. C., Ball, L. J., Jenkins, M. C., Sandham, A., & Menacere, T. (2013). Detecting insider threats through language change. Law and Human Behavior, 37(4), 267-275. doi: 10.1037/lhb0000032Bar-

Tausczik, Y. R., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2010). The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 29(1) 24–54. doi: 10.1177/0261927X09351676 http://jls.sagepub.com

Tiongco, J. A. (2015). An approach to measure communicated threats: Developing a rating scale using a threat analysis model. Unpublished dissertation, California School of Forensic Studies, Alliant International University, San Diego, CA.

Trump, K. (2015, February 9). Study finds rapid escalation of violent school threats. http://www.scchoolsecurity.org/2015/02/study-finds-rapid-escalation-violent-school-threats/

Turner, J. T. & Gelles, M. G. (2003). Threat assessment: A risk management approach. New York, NY: Haworth.

Turner, J. T. (2003). Threat assessment: A risk management

approach. Binghampton, NY: Haworth.

Tweed, R. G., & Dutton, D. G. (1998). A comparison of impulsive and instrumental subgroups of batterers. Violence and Victims, 13, 217-230.

Twemlow, S. W., Fonagy, P., Sacco, F. C., & Vernberg, E. (2008). Assessing adolescents who threaten homicide in schools. Clinical Social Work Journal, 36(2), 131-142. doi: 10.1007/s10615-007-0101-9

U.S. Secret Service, & U.S. Department of Education (2002). Threat assessment in schools: A guide to managing threatening situations and to creating safe school climates. Washington, DC: Authors.

U.S. Secret Service, U.S. Department of Education, & Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2010, April). Campus attacks: Targeted violence affecting institutions ofhhigher education. Washington DC: Authors.

Van Brunt, B. (2015). Violence Risk Assessment of the Written Word (VRAW2). Journal of Campus Behavioral Intervention, 3, 12-25. https://schoolshooters.info/sites/default/files/vraww.pdf

van der Meer, B. B., Bootsma, L., & Meloy, R. (2012). Disturbing communications and problematic approaches to the Dutch Royal Family. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 23(5/6), 571-589. doi:10.1080/14789949.2012.727453

Vudhiwat, C. (2002, September). Developing threats: Cyberstalking and the criminal justice system. Crime & Justice International, 9-10, 28-29.

Warren, L. J., MacKenzie, R., Mullen, P. E., & Ogloff, J. R. P. (2005). The problem behavior model: The development of a stalkers clinic and a threateners clinic. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 23, 387-397.

Warren, L. J., Mullen, P. E., & McEwan, T. E. (2014). Explicit threats of violence. In J. R. Meloy & J. Hoffmann (Eds.), International handbook of threat assessment (pp. 18-38). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Warren, L. J., Mullen, P. E., & Ogloff, J. P. (2011). A clinical study of those who utter threats to kill. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 29(2), 141-154. doi:10.1002/bsl.974

Warren, L. J., Mullen, P. E., Thomas, S. M., Ogloff, J. P., & Burgess, P. M. (2008). Threats to kill: A follow-up study. Psychological Medicine, 38(4), 599-605. doi: 10.1017/S003329170700181X

Warren, L. J., Ogloff, J. P., & Mullen, P. E. (2013). The psychological basis of threatening behaviour. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 20(3), 329-343. doi:10.1080/13218719.2012.674716

Watt, D., Kelly, S., & Llamas, C. (2013). Inference of threat from neutrally-worded utterances in familiar and unfamiliar languages. York Papers in Linguistics (Series 2, Issue 13), 99-120. http://www.york.ac.uk/language/ypl/ypl2issue13/YPL2_2013_Issue_13_Complete.pdf

Weinstein, H., Frazier, D., & Bongar, B. (2009). Why are they attacking us? Decoding the messages of Al-Qaeda terrorists targeting the United States and Europe. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 22(3), 65-85.

Westbury, C., Keith, J., Briesemeister, B. B., Hofmann, M. J., & Jacobs, A. M. (2015). Avoid violence, rioting, and outrage; approach celebration, delight, and strength: Using large text corpora to compute valence, arousal, and the basic emotions. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(8), 1599-1622. doi:10.1080/17470218.2014.970204

White, S. G., & Cawood, J. S. (1998). Threat management of stalking cases. In J. R. Meloy (Ed.), The psychology of stalking (pp. 295-315). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Wood, W., & Quinn, J. M. (2003). Forewarned and forearmed? Two meta-analysis syntheses of forewarnings of influence appeals. Psychological Bulletin, 129(1), 119-138. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.119

Woodhams, J., & Grant, T. (2006). Developing a categorization system for rapists' speech. Psychology, Crime & Law, 12(3), 245-260. doi:10.1080/10683160500151134

Zaitsu, W. (2010). Bomb threats and offender characteristics in Japan. Journal of Investigative Psychology & Offender Profiling, 7(1), 75-89. doi: 10.1002/jip.106


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

(c) 2006-2015 Association of Digital Forensics, Security and Law